We need to use GOPROXY and/or GOPRIVATE when working with private-only Go modules or a mix of private and public modules. GOPROXY was [introduced](https://jfrog.com/blog/why-goproxy-matters-and-which-to-pick/) in version 1.3. It proxies Go modules from different version control systems (VCS) and caches them. [Artifactory](https://jfrog.com/artifactory/) can be one such private proxy and [GoProxy](https://goproxy.io/) is the default public proxy. Since in my day job I have to use Artifactory in different companies that's what I can describe. Find out the name of the Go modules virtual repository that your instance of Artifactory uses. It could be something like _go-virtual_. Ask the administrators of your Artifactory instance. Set the environment variable GOPROXY. Change the value according to your environment. $ export GOPROXY=https://your.artifactory.tld/artifactory/api/go/your-go-virtual-repo Now when you use `go get` you should see the Artifactory proxy being used (hint: use `go get -x`). $ go get -x github.com/antlr/antlr4/runtime/Go/antlr/v4 In case there are issues with proxy.golang.org like [widespread not found: fetch timed out](https://github.com/golang/go/issues/57185) and [QOS very bad in Australia](https://github.com/golang/go/issues/57188) you will want to turn off the proxying altogether. Set GOPROXY to _direct_ and GOSUMDB to _off_. $ GOPROXY=direct GOSUMDB=off go get -x github.com/antlr/antlr4/runtime/Go/antlr/v4 You can also set multiple proxies in the environment variable separated by a comma (including _direct_). $ export GOPROXY=https://your.artifactory.tld/artifactory/api/go/your-go-virtual-repo,direct GOPRIVATE is used when you have some private modules and want to bypass the public proxy for them. For everything public you will use the proxy. I have written about it before in [GitLab and go get](link://slug/gitlab-and-go-get). I don't know if or how it will work but you could skip GOPRIVATE and only use a private GOPROXY on Artifactory that proxies your private git repositories. I have not seen that implemented in a few places I worked at so I always needed to use both. If you use Python and PyPI, Artifactory can also proxy and cache PyPI. Ask your administrators to configure it for you. Either use the `--index-url` or `--extra-index-url` flags in `pip` to use it or you can set their corresponding environment variables PIP_INDEX_URL and PIP_EXTRA_INDEX_URL. Artifactory will need to be configured with a virtual repository pointing to PyPI which you will use by setting the environment variable. Notice _/simple_ in the url. $ export PIP_INDEX_URL=https://your.artifactory.tld/artifactory/api/pypi/your-pypi-virtual-repo/simple Now when you use `pip` it will use the Artifactory proxy/cache. $ python3.11 -m pip install --user black or if you didn't set the environment variable $ python3.11 -m pip install --user --index-url https://your.artifactory.tld/artifactory/api/pypi/your-pypi-virtual-repo/simple black