We need to use GOPROXY and/or GOPRIVATE when working with private-only Go modules or a mix of private and public modules.

GOPROXY was introduced in version 1.3. It proxies Go modules from different version control systems (VCS) and caches them. Artifactory can be one such private proxy and GoProxy is the default public proxy.

Since in my day job I have to use Artifactory in different companies that's what I can describe.

Find out the name of the Go modules virtual repository that your instance of Artifactory uses. It could be something like go-virtual. Ask the administrators of your Artifactory instance.

Set the environment variable GOPROXY. Change the value according to your environment.

$ export GOPROXY=https://your.artifactory.tld/artifactory/api/go/your-go-virtual-repo

Now when you use go get you should see the Artifactory proxy being used (hint: use go get -x).

$ go get -x

In case there are issues with like widespread not found: fetch timed out and QOS very bad in Australia you will want to turn off the proxying altogether. Set GOPROXY to direct and GOSUMDB to off.

$ GOPROXY=direct GOSUMDB=off go get -x

You can also set multiple proxies in the environment variable separated by a comma (including direct).

$ export GOPROXY=https://your.artifactory.tld/artifactory/api/go/your-go-virtual-repo,direct

GOPRIVATE is used when you have some private modules and want to bypass the public proxy for them. For everything public you will use the proxy. I have written about it before in GitLab and go get.

I don't know if or how it will work but you could skip GOPRIVATE and only use a private GOPROXY on Artifactory that proxies your private git repositories. I have not seen that implemented in a few places I worked at so I always needed to use both.

If you use Python and PyPI, Artifactory can also proxy and cache PyPI. Ask your administrators to configure it for you. Either use the --index-url or --extra-index-url flags in pip to use it or you can set their corresponding environment variables PIP_INDEX_URL and PIP_EXTRA_INDEX_URL.

Artifactory will need to be configured with a virtual repository pointing to PyPI which you will use by setting the environment variable. Notice /simple in the url.

$ export PIP_INDEX_URL=https://your.artifactory.tld/artifactory/api/pypi/your-pypi-virtual-repo/simple

Now when you use pip it will use the Artifactory proxy/cache.

$ python3.11 -m pip install --user black
or if you didn't set the environment variable
$ python3.11 -m pip install --user --index-url https://your.artifactory.tld/artifactory/api/pypi/your-pypi-virtual-repo/simple black